REPOST: Hannibal, a complete biography. !Completed!

The people, conflicts, and daily life of the Roman army.

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REPOST: Hannibal, a complete biography. !Completed!

Postby Q. C. Locatus Barbatus on Mon Feb 03, 2003 9:54 pm

Salvete,


Some of you may remeber I made a huge essay about Hannibal, but it was never completed (mostly due to my work as Aedilis), now I have taken it up again and it is almost completed. It consists of more than 20 pages, so I will repost it in small parts.

Valete!

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A: Introduction

Postby Q. C. Locatus Barbatus on Mon Feb 03, 2003 9:56 pm

A: Introduction

PART I: Who was Hannibal?

Hannibal was born was born in 247 BC. That was during the first Phoenician war (264-241). He was born in Sicily where his father was fighting against the Romans. This mountain was the Eryx, and was besieged by the Romans. Hannibal spent his first years walking and playing between soldiers and slaves, the mercenaries and captives of his father, Hamilcar, the famous Carthaginian commander.
The Carthaginians were originally Phoenicians. Carthago was a colony of the ancient city of Tyrus. Even in the time of Hamilcar (some 500 years after the foundation of Carthago), the city of Carthago still donate a large sum of money to the temple of the predecessors in Tyrus.
But the Barcas weren't of Tyrian origin, they were of Cyrene. The gens of the Barcas was long not seen as a "full Carthaginian gens". But that was about to change in the following years;
Back to the first Phoenician war: When Hannibal was five, his father had to retreat because of the pact that had been made between the Romans and the Carthaginians. Some ships were sent from Carthago to collect Hamilcar and his men. At that time the gens Hanno (an ancient Phoenician gens) had the power in Carthago. They weren't very good friends of the Barcas.
Once back in Carthago the problems began. The army of Hamilcar hadn't seen his money for ages and started a mutiny (238-237 BC). The African hinterlands soon followed. Carthago had the greatest problems to resist until Hanno was taken away power and it was given to Hamilcar, who soon slaughtered his old friends.
Rome saw its change and claimed another 1200 silver talents and the isles of Sardinia and Corsica. Carthago grumbled but, exhausted as it was, agreed. The power of Carthago in Northern Mediterranean Sea was gone. Hamilcar was furious and planned an expedition to the West, to regain and discover new lands. He departed with his family and some man in 237 BC. But before the departure Hannibal had to swear an oath, the oath 'never to be a friend of the Romans'.
They passed Gibraltar and ended up in a city called Gades (Cadiz). They were welcomed heartily, as an official legate of the city of Carthago. Hamilcars duty was to conquer Spain, and to turn it into a new base for Carthago.


PART II: welcome to Spain.

The Barcas were already 9 years in Spain before they began the conquest. They marched into the hinterland through the valley of Betis. They came to the 'Silver Mountains' (Sierra Morena). These mountains contained 'the treasure of Spain', namely silver and gold ore. Hamilcar founded a city, to process the materials.
But the arrival of Hamilcar had not been unnoticed, the Celts living there (the Iberians lived closer to the shores) raised an army and went into 'battle'. battle? Not exactly, because when Hamilcar sent some of his elephants for observation towards the enemy, they fled! There king was pursued and captured, his eyes were burned out and he was crucified. But his men soon joined the still growing Spanish forces of Hamilcar.
But fate struck again, 9 years later Hamilcar was killed in an ambush by Celts of the neighbouring villages. They were slaughtered. Hasdrubal was granted the honour of becoming the commander.
8 Years passed. Hasdrubal, a clever diplomat, left the war-path and started a politic of 'moral conquest', he started to make friends with the Iberian chiefs. He also founded a new city (known to the Iberians as Massia) with a large port. But a city with a port of this seize draws the attention of passing ships, and soon the rumours of a 'Nova Carthago' reached Rome. Rome sent some legates asking Hasdrubal not to cross the river Ebro 'with weapons in his hands'. Hasdrubal agreed and gained precious time. He made more and more friends. But 5 years later Hasdrubal was killed by a Celt. The elder of Nova Carthago choosed the 26 years old Hannibal to be his successor.


PART III: the first confrontations.

Hannibal was chosen to be the successor of Hasdrubal. But Hannibal was an unknown man. Who was he at that time? The year was 221 BC, Hannibal was aged 26. He was a powerful man ('a worthy son of Hasdrubal'), but he didn't drink or eat much, he wore normal cloths, had beautiful armour and was married with a princess of Castulo: Imilce (only her name is still known).
Hannibal proved to be a splendid commander. The other tasks were given to his younger brother. Hannibal committed the Spanish chiefs to him 'by violence and bribes'. Within a year his army was marching through the Sierra Guadarrama, surprising the local rulers. Hannibal demanded money, provisions and recruits. The Spanish people were shocked, raised an army and attacked Hannibal. They were defeated in a most painful way, with the use of the elephants in a principal part.

PART IV: Saguntum (Arse)

In the middle of the plains there was a city, called Saguntum (Arse). This city lied at the Carthaginian side of the Ebro, but nevertheless Roman legates came to Hannibal, asking him not to conquer Saguntum. Hannibal ignored them and attacked Saguntum (219 BC). The city of Saguntum was important, because it was the separation between the influence of Carthago and the influence of Rome. After 8 months (!) the city of Saguntum was conquered. The Roman Senate was furious. Especially the Gentes of the Claudii and the Scipiona. They wanted a war against Carthago, but the Fabii insisted on a peaceful solution. A delegation of the Senate was sent to Carthago in 218 BC. They had only one question for the Carthaginian Council: did they agree with the way of acting of Hannibal? The council said they didn't want to disapprove the actions of Hannibal. Fabius stood up and said: "I hold in my hands war or peace, what do you Carthaginians want?" The council deliberated, and came with a surprising answer: "you may choose." "Then it will be war", replied Fabius. In Rome the temple of Janus was opened.
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B: the road to Italy

Postby Q. C. Locatus Barbatus on Tue Feb 04, 2003 12:37 pm

B: The road to Italy

PART V: Crossing the Ebro:

When the couriers of Carthago came with the news of the coming war, Hannibal organised his army in the neighbourhood of Carthagena (Nova Carthago). Spies on Sicily warned him that a large Roman force was prepared to attack Carthago. What could Hannibal do? Carthago had no trained soldiers within its walls and no navy that was big enough to resist. But if Hannibal returned to defend Carthago, the enemy would take Spain.
Immediately Hannibal sent his wife and son (at that time 1 year old) to Carthago, and he himself took the command of his forces and marched northwards.
The army consisted out of many nationalities: Numidian (cavalry), Lybian, Spanish (archers and hurlers), Celt and African. This huge army crossed the Ebro without any resistence.


PART VI: Crossing the Pyrenees.

It took Hannibal 3 and a half month to conquer the land between the Ebro and the Pyrenees. But suddenly two Gallians out of the North of Italy came to visit Hannibal and told him that there was a revolt going on against the Romans in the plains of the river Po. Hannibal understood that this was the chance he had been waiting for. The Roman troops that were heading towards Spain had to return to fight the Gallians. Hannibal promised to help the Gallians and directed his army towards France, and crossed the Pyrenees through the Pertuspass. He concluded a treaty with the people on the other side of the mountains and already reached the Rhône 4 days later. It took him two days to cross the river, including a battle with the Gallians on the other side.


PART VII: What did the Romans do?

It took the newly elected consul Scipio 4 months to raise an army and to sail towards the Rhône delta. When he arrived, he was awaited by the Greek officers of the colony Massilia (Marseille). They told him that Hannibal was here, on the other side of the Rhône. Scipio laughed and said: "the Ebro, you mean", they replied: "no, here at the Rhône, two days walking from here!". Scipio sent the cavalry to investigate this nonsense and they came back 5 days later having seen the remnants of a Carthaginian camp, left 2 days ago. Scipio sent his men to Spain under command of his brother, and left for Pisa. The army already present in Sicily was sent to the valley of the Po to stop Hannibal there.


PART VIII: Crossing the Alps.

A few days later Hannibal his army was facing the Alps. The soldiers got scared. They weren't used to these high mountains and to his climate. Hannibal was furious, he incited his army. The Carthaginians ransacked some villages in order to get provisions and warm cloths. They entered the Alps by the valley of the Drôme, a tributary river of the Rhône. But not only the mountains and the weather were enemies, also the Allobrogi, a tribe of Celts living in the mountains. They were attacked several times, but finally won the battle. Once on the top, the army was given two days of rest. The third day Hannibal came to collect his officers and took them to a high rock. Below they could see the green fields of Italy. Hannibal said: "these are not only the walls of Italy we have conquered, but also the walls of Rome!" They finally reached the other side, crossing the Alps in 15 days. Of the 38 000 men 26 000 survived.
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C: The first battles

Postby Q. C. Locatus Barbatus on Wed Feb 05, 2003 3:48 pm

C: Italy and the first battle


PART IX: Welcome to Italy.

When the army reached the valley floor, the rebellion of the Gallian people was not only already over, Hannibal was also welcomed in a hostile way. Hannibal reacted quickly by conquering their capital (Torino) and gave his men and animals the time to recover. Most of the elephants hadn't survived the bad weather. Then Hannibal marched towards Milan and even further until they saw a Roman army facing them, at the river Ticino.


PART X: The Romans hadn't been wasting their time.

Scipio had landed in Pisa and had met the army that was sent forward to end the Gallian rebellion. He was very surprised when he heard that Hannibal had managed to cross the Alps. The invisible enemy would no longer escape from the Roman swords. In accordance with the last census there were 770 000 possible soldiers in Italy. Scipio was very confident. The Romans started marching towards the Carthaginian army.


PART XI: The first skirmishes.

On a misty morning the Romans were marching towards the Carthaginians. The Roman legions were protected by their cavalry on the sides. All of a sudden they were attacked by the Spanish cavalry of Hannibal. The Romans had to yield for them and Scipio was severely wounded. The Romans retreated to their camp. Hannibal had discovered the weak point of the Romans: they were used to discipline and planning their battles, but couldn't decide what to do in a new situation by themselves. Hannibal made his plans.


PART XII: The other consul.

Scipio was together with his soldiers evacuated to Placentia (Piacenza). Soon the other (Plebeian) consul joined him with his own army. His name was Tiberius Sempronius Congus, a very greedy man. He was determined to end the 'riots' in this part of Italy. It was a shame that 14 000 legionnaires and 22 000 Auxilii were behind walls waiting for an enemy to show up on Italian territory! And besides that, there were elections next year. Who would be elected? The ill Scipio or the victor Sempronius? Against all advice of Scipio, he ordered his soldiers to build a camp along the river Trebia.
The winter was passing and Sempronius began to despair. Wasn't anything going to happen after all? Suddenly the Numidian cavalry came attacking the camp.


PART XIII: Preparing for war.

Hannibal knew he had to conquer the army of Sempronius. He found a proper place for battle. A small hill with a muddy riverbed before it. On the hill a trench was dug. That trench was filled up with the Spanish archers and hurlers. At the sides the cavalry was drawn up, and after the riverbed the infantry was hidden. Everything was ready for battle, the Numidian cavalry was sent out as bait.


PART XIV: The battle of the Trebia.

The Roman soldiers were pursuing the enemy. It was snowing and the plains were full of nearly frozen water. The soldiers were freezing. Then they even had to enter a muddy riverbed! The Carthaginians attacked, first the archers and hurlers, than the cavalry and at last the infantry. That night only 10 000 Roman soldiers returned to their camp. Hannibal captured a lot of them. The allies of the Romans were released, but for the legionnaires a ransom had to be paid.
Scipio returned to his army in Spain, Sempronius was defeated in the elections and the Carthaginians finally had some rest and the support of the Gallian tribes of the Po plains.


PART XV: The journey through the swamps.

Two months later 10 000 Gallians had joined the Carthaginian army and they started marching towards the South. They chose the shortest route: over the hills of the Apennines. This was not only the shortest but also the hardest way. It was full of swamps and many men and animals were killed by fever and other illness. Even Hannibal was ill. They soon left the swaps, descending into the valley of Facsulae (Fiesole). Only one elephant had survived the journey, and Hannibal became blind on one eye, due to his illness. Soon the rumours of a large Roman army waiting for them encountered the Carthaginian army.


PART XVI: The Roman master plan.

Hannibal decided to avoid the Romans. He went to the valleys and passed the Roman army that was hiding in the mountains. That Roman army was commanded by a new consul, Gaius Flaminius (elected in the same year, 217 BC). It was a capable man, although he had a little too much self-confidence. His plan was simple. His legions would follow Hannibal through the plains. The other consul, Servilius, would block of Hannibals way a bit further. In that case the Carthaginians would be attacked on both sides. But what he didn't know was that Hannibal had seen that the Romans were following. He made a plan.
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D: Defeated

Postby Q. C. Locatus Barbatus on Thu Feb 06, 2003 8:03 pm

D: Defeated.


PART XVII: the Roman defeat.

Hannibal passed a lake, the Thrasymanian lake. The road they were following passed the shores, in the valley. Next to the road the hills began, covered with woods. When the Carthaginians were passing the lake, Hannibal ordered his men to climb the hills and to hide in the woods.
The Romans were full a self-confidence, within two days they should meet their comrades, and thereby defeating the Carthaginian army. The following morning when they were passing the lake, there was a thick fog. All of a sudden they heard screaming voices and felt rocks coming down on them. There was no possibility to flee. When the Carthaginian soldiers attacked the Romans were driven into the lake. The massacre was terrible. One legion (about 6000 men) managed to climb up the hill but surrendered entirely. Only 15 000 of the 40 000 Romans survived, the consul Flaminius was killed. On that time the spearhead of Servilius army encountered the Carthaginian cavalry. Only 2000 of the 4000 Romans survived this encounter, the rest was captured.


PART XVIII: A dictator had to be chosen.

The people of Rome were panicking. They were rumours of a defeat. What happened? The praetor Pomponius Matho came to the forum and said just these words: "we are defeated in a giant battle. One consul is fallen."
The Romans did what had to be done, a dictator was appointed. Fabia Verrucosus, the man who went to Carthago in 218 BC, was the new authority in Rome. Fabius immediately asked the city to do an "effort" and to increase the number of Roman soldiers. The people got enthusiast and many joined the army. Fabius travelled with his army to the remaining soldiers of Servilius and dismissed the consul.


PART IXX: the cold war.

Fabius didn't engage Hannibal in battle. He kept following the Carthaginian army, but from a safe place, up in the hills. Even when the Carthaginians started ransacking villages and killing all men aged above 16, the Romans didn't react. But the legions were growing, and the men were getting more determined.
Hannibal regained contact with Carthago by sea. Finally Carthaginian ships were again able to travel to the Roman coast. Hannibal sold the captured soldiers as slaves, and got news from Spain. The Romans didn't seem to get through the plains at the Ebro because the Spanish were fiercely fighting against them. Hasdrubal was waiting in Carthageno for the Roman soldiers. Even more important news arrived: 70 battleships of the Carthaginians had destroyed Roman provision ships heading for Spain and even a Carthaginian force had landed in Pisa, but too late to find Hannibal there.
Hannibal was trying to lure Fabius out of the mountains, but it didn't work. Instead of that the Carthaginians were walking into a Roman trap.


PART XX: the Roman attack.

Fabius, who knew the land, saw that the Carthaginians were heading towards a valley that was surrounded by high rocky hills (the Casinum valley). He immediately ordered his men to take positions up on the hills. When the Carthaginians entered it, the trap was closed by the Roman soldiers, closing of the gate to the valley.
Hannibal soon heard of his scouts what was happened. He ordered that the cattle (that was travelling with the army, serving as food) had to be released, but with wood around their horns. Once it was night, Hannibal ordered the soldiers to put fire on the wood around the horns. The animals got frightened and ran up one side of the hills.
The Roman soldiers saw thousands of burning torches coming their way and came out of their positions, attacking the cattle.
When Hannibal saw the Romans had left their positions, he made his way out by the hills. The Carthaginian army escaped without a single victim.


PART XXI: the first Roman success.

The senate was furious. They called Fabius back for a report. The substitute of Fabius on the battlefield, Minucius Rufus, got the orders certainly not to engage in battle with Hannibal. But on their way the Roman cavalry encountered a Carthaginian spearhead. A violent battle was the result. The Roman cavalry won the battle. Minucius was overjoyed, and sent reports of a won battle to Rome. He was called to Rome and appointed as co-dictator. The army was split in two parts. Minucius engaged Hannibal almost immediately. He had to be saved by his colleague Fabius. Hannibal retreated and waited.
The food was becoming scarce in Rome. The people started grumbling. One man, Gaius Ferentius Varro stood up and said that the war wouldn't take long anymore with him as a consul. The people believed him and he was elected as a consul together with Aemilius Paulus. The Roman enthusiasm was coming back and the people joined the army in enormous numbers. Even one hundred senators joined the cavalry. The Roman army grew to an enormous amount: 85 000 soldiers.
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E: Cannae

Postby Q. C. Locatus Barbatus on Sat Feb 08, 2003 1:53 pm

E: Cannae

PART XXII: Cannae.

On the third day of August The Roman army marched towards the Carthaginians. They were full of self-confidence and were under direct command of the consuls. Hannibal, however, had been expecting them. Hannibal used the aggression of the Romans to lure them into (another) trap. He enticed the Roman army into a V-shaped valley. Once in, Hannibal closed it off and attacked the Romans from all sides. The Romans were packed on each other and the Carthaginian arrows made many victims. The Romains were defeated. 50 000 Roman soldiers were killed, the Consul Aemilius Paulus was dead, Varro fled. The Carthaginians lost 5 700 soldiers.


PART XXIII: Panic in Rome.

Almost every family had lost relatives in the battle, Almost 100 senatores were killed. Rome was frightened. Nobody ought to leave the city.
Hannibal sent along with 10 captured Roman soldiers a messenger to Rome, Carthalo, who had to propose a treaty to the Dictator, Fabius. But some miles before the walls of Rome a lictor awaited Carthalo, telling him that he wasn't allowed to enter the city. From the ten Roman soldiers, who had promised Hannibal to return when no compromise was reached, only nine returned. One had fled, but the Roman senate tracked him down and sent him back. A roman was ought to keep his promises! The survivors of the battle were blamed and sent to Sicily, on duty without being paid and with the prohibition to set up a camp closer than a day walking from a city. The commander of these legions became Varro, no longer consul.
Hannibal wasn't marching towards Rome, he knew that without Carthaginian support he wouldn’t stand long, so he travelled to Napoli.


PART XXIV: the roman allies are doubting

Syracuse chose the side of Hannibal. Capua too. So did Apulia, Samnium and Calabria. Rome was getting isolated. Hannibal sent 6 000 golden seal-rings to Carthago. They sent in return 4000 Numidian cavalry and 40 elephants. They also sent 26 000 soldiers to Spain under the command of Mago. Hannibal his plans were obvious: Mago had to break through the Roman lines and redo the journey of Hannibal and so put the Romans between two armies.
When Hannibal came near to Napoli he saw that the city was preparing itself for defence, so he returned to Capua for the winter.


PART XXV: Capua

At that time Capua was the richest Italian city. Rome had conquered it and it became "civitas sine iure". The people of Capua was very glad to see Hannibal coming. They treated him as a deliverer. Hannibal was very glad and granted the city the conquered fasces of Flaminius, Varro and Aemilius. The Carthaginian set up a camp on the mountain Tifata, not to bother the people of Capua and ordered his men to pay everything they bought in Capua with cash money. Hannibal didn't waste his time during the winter, he made treaties and pacts with the other south Italian people. But some cities refused, mainly the rich ports in the south. Most important of this cities was Napoli, who still controlled the gulf of Capia. Without Napoli Capua wasn't worth much. Smaller cities, without the force to defend themselves had the choice: If they supported Hannibal they would be protected, if they continued to support Rome they had a free road to the Roman area. One small city chose to do this, once evacuated their city was set to fire by the Carthaginians.


PART XXVI: Locri, Hannibal and Carthago reconnected.

At the gulf of Taranto there was a small city, called Locri. The inhabitants were panicking and tried to leave the city as quick as possible. Hannibal prevented this by blocking the city gates. He made a proposition: the city wouldn’t be destroyed if the Carthaginians could use its port. The city agreed and soon the dispatch of Carthago arrived: 40 elephants and Numidian cavalry. Also many Greek entered Italy by Locri. They still cherished the hope of a Magna Graecia. But more important: Hannibal closed a treaty with Phillipus V of Macedonia. Phillipus promised to join the Carthaginian army in exchange for Greek influence on the Dalmatian coasts. A bit later Syracuse joined this treaty. But Sicily still was an eyesore for Hannibal. Rome still controlled it, and it was protected by Napoli and Tarente.
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F: the Allies

Postby Q. C. Locatus Barbatus on Fri Feb 14, 2003 12:42 pm

F: the allies


PART XXVII: Rome was panicking

The Augures in the year 215 BC were terrible: The sea was on fire, a cow gave birth to a foal and in the temple of Iuno the statues were bleeding. The number of Roman allies had diminished in a terrible manner. Rome was obliged to impose double taxes on its people and on the people of its allies. Also new recruits were trained. Rome realised that there politics of Roman citizenship also had his dark side. Indignant and offended cities now chose the side of Hannibal. Especially Umbria was grumbling: Hannibal had ransacked its villages and killed its men. But the Roman senate insisted on her claims. Deserters were whipped (370 of them were thrown of the Tarpeïc Rock). Punitive expeditions were sent to disobedient cities.


PART XXVIII: bye, bye, Tarentum.

Tarente (Tarentum) was a fortified city that played an important role in reaching Sicily from the Italian shore. But Tarentum had always been a rebellious city. Nonetheless Rome conquered it, but took with it the sons of the most important families, as hostages. When Tarentum should misbehave, the sons would be killed. During the panic in Rome the hostages tried to escape. 80 of them were captured again and thrown of the Tarpeïc Rock. The main Tarentinian families were furious and sent negotiators to Hannibal. Rome was panicking again and two proconsuls were elected: Gracchus and Marcellus. Marcellus rushed with his army to Nola, the first defence line of Napoli. Hannibal was besieging it.


PART XXIX: Hannibal had no rest.

Hannibal was living "on his horse". He had to rush from coast to coast to defend his allies against the Romans, who were trying to land on the beaches. The cities who didn't want to support Hannibal were besieged. Casilinum had to surrender, despite of many efforts of Gracchus to help them. Hannibal led his army to the last big city of Southern Italy: Napoli. On his way lied the city Nola. The people of Nola were in favour of Hannibal. But Marcellus wasn't. He hanged 70 rebel leaders and defended the city well. From time to time they made sallies. For the first time the Carthaginians lost more men then the Romans. Also for the first time Hannibal was betrayed by his men, 272 soldiers of his Numidian cavalry joined the Romans. The next day the Carthaginians were gone. Marcellus sent out men to see were they were going. Hannibal was heading for Tarentum.


PART XXX: The conquest of Tarentum.

Two citizens of Tarentum had promised Hannibal to open the gates for him. Those two citizens were Philemenus and Nico. Philemenus promised Hannibal that he would be able to let the Carthaginians enter the city by a small gate. Nico promised Hannibal the entrance through the main gate. Hannibal took his infantry with him and marched at night to the city. On a signal, given by Hannibal, Philemenus and Nico killed the guards at the gates and opened the gates for Hannibals army. Hannibal ordered his army to kill thRomans, but to spare the lives of the citizens. The Roman force inside the city was confused. Were this the citizens or the Carthaginians that attacked them? Many of them fled to the Castrum, in the middle of the harbour. Hannibal finally conquered a large port, but its harbour was useless.
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G: on the edge

Postby Q. C. Locatus Barbatus on Mon Feb 17, 2003 6:05 pm

G: On the edge.

PART XXXI: The battle of Syracuse

In another port there was another battle going on: in the harbour of Syracuse 60 Roman vessels were slowly sailing towards the city walls at night. The decks of the ships were loaded with legionnaires. They would climb the city walls with ladders. The defences of Syracuse were designed by Archimedes. At that time Marcellus was the commander of the Romans. The soldiers were silently preparing for battle, but they didn't know the Greeks were doing that too.
The Roman ships passed the large stone hurling machines at the entrance of the harbour without resistance. But once within it they were attacked by lead balls, shot from catapults and iron tentacles of strange machines who turn over the ships. These machines were designed by Archimedes too. The Roman invasion failed.
They tried again from the landside. But the attack failed again, once the more they were attacked by strange hurling machines, hurling stone and other projectiles. The Romans decided to besiege the city. After a while they finally were able to enter Syracuse, thanks to treachery of some of its citizens. Many Greeks were killed, one of them was Archimedes. Rome finally possessed the whole of Sicily.


PART XXXII: Hasdrubal in Spain.

Hasdrubal (the brother of Hannibal) tried to cross the Ebro to advance towards the Alps. But he was defeated by Gnaeus and Publius Scipio. Hasdrubal and his army was driven back towards Southern Spain. Carthago sent 20 000 men, first intended as reinforcements for Hannibal, to defend Carthagena.
Rome succeed to capture the ship with legates from Philippus of Macedonia, and with them the full text of the treaty between Philippus and Hannibal. A Roman army was sent out to intercept the Macedonian army, heading for Italy.


PART XXXIII: and again: Rome panicking…

A message came from Spain: The Scipiones were totally unexpected defeated by the Carthaginians. On the foundation of this defeat laid the desertion of Gallians in the Roman army. Now Hasdrubal had a free way to the Alps.
In Italy, on the other hand, the Carthaginians had managed to kill the consul, Gracchus. That year (211 BC) Rome drawed up the balance-sheet after 8 years of war: No grain had to be expected from Sicily or Sardinia. There was an outbreak of the plague. There were 23 legions sent out, there were still 270 000 men who were able to join the army… but: in the year that Hannibal crossed the Alps there still were 770 000 available soldiers. Who would do the harvest, the trade and other necessary things?
A man stepped forwards in the senate and said: "you only think about Hannibal, but your real enemy is Carthago." That man was Publius Cornelius Scipio, 25 years old and the son of the commander in Spain. He had fought in both battles (Trebia and Cannae), but never had been in command of any army. His opponents replied: "Carthago is in Africa, and Hannibal can be here, in Rome within a few days!". Scipio answered: "That is true, but if we destroy Carthago, what will be left of Hannibal?"


PART XXXIV: Scipio

Publius Cornelius Scipio was 25 years old, and the son of the commander in Spain. He had fought at Trebia and Cannae. He was used to go to the temple of Jupiter at night to think the situation over until the sun rises. His explanation was: "one is never less lonely than when one is completely alone". The superstitious people of Rome saw in Scipio a messenger of the Gods. A hero of Cannae who was in contact with the Gods.
The senate deliberated on the next elections. Scipio was to young even to be praetor, but he came out of the gens Cornelii, a gens that had many consuls before. He was also very certain of himself. The senate decided that the only candidate to become proconsul would be Scipio, assisted by an older commander and adviser. And (surprise) Scipio was chosen to be proconsul with the majority of the votes. Scipio made up his plans: by conquering Spain he would travel to Africa, and finally to Carthago.


PART XXXV: Scipio in Spain

Scipio travelled to Spain immediately to encounter the remnants of the Roman army who were left there after the defeat against Hasdrubals and Magos' troupes. Scipio used the winter to drill and train his troops, 1000 Legionnaires and 2000 Auxilii. He discovered that Mago and Hasdrubal were more than 10 days travelling away from their capital, Carthagena. Scipio advanced immediately to Carthagena. He was followed by parts of the Roman Navy. Scipio attacked Carthagena, but was repelled several times by Carthaginian counterattacks. Then Scipio took 500 of his Legionnaires and went to the North side of the city walls. He had to wade through a meter of water but he reached the walls without any resistance of the Carthaginians, who were busy to defend the Southern walls. The Romans entered the city by the use of ladders, and Carthagena was took in.
Rome was overjoyed. At the same time trophies of Marcellus out of Syracuse came to Rome. A golden globe made by Archimedes was part of those trophies.


PART XXXVI: Capua besieged

As expected Rome tried to retake Capua. Nothing had embarrassed Rome so much as the treachery of their Greek city. The army of the proconsuls besieged the city. A cry for help was sent out by the citizens of Capua to Hannibal. He reacted immediately by a quick attack by his cavalry and his elephants, helped by a sortie of the army of Capua. But the Romans resisted. Hannibal swiftly changed his tactics and headed for Rome.


PART XXXVII: Hannibal heading for Rome

The Carthaginians were heading on the Via Latina in the direction of Rome. On his way through enemy territory he burned villages and ruined the harvest. At cassinum (at the place were nowadays Monte Cassino lays, known from WWII) he gave his army a rest of two days. His aim was to lure the army of the proconsuls away from Capua.
The people of Rome were panicking: "Hannibal ad portas!". The senate gathered on the forum, so they could see Hannibal coming. The Cornelii demanded that the Roman army should retreat to defend Rome. But Fabius Maximus said: "Hannibal is not coming to besiege Rome, but to end the siege of Capua". The senate sent a message to the Proconsuls to send all the men they could miss, but to continue the siege of Capua. 15 000 men were sent to Rome. At that time 35 000 soldiers were available to defend Rome.
Hannibal had a camp on a distance of only 4,5 km (or about 3 miles) from the city walls. His cavalry inspected the walls without any resistance. Hannibal was ransacking Latium.
Rome was bleeding to death. All the citizens of Rome had to turn in their gold and silver, including jewellery and dinner things. The women were allowed to keep one ring. Rome called Marcellus back to stop Hannibal ransacking Latium.
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H: The hunt for Hannibal

Postby Q. C. Locatus Barbatus on Wed Feb 19, 2003 8:01 pm

H. The hunt for Hannibal


PART XXXVIII: The end of a city

Hannibal went for Reghium, a small city close to Messina, the last port at the South coast, a gateway to Sicily. But Reghium was prepared for an attack, and as he did at Napoli, Hannibal went soon.
At the same time Capua surrendered to the Romans. Many patricians of Capua chose suicide above capture. Capua lost all his rights, and was doomed to become a storehouse for Rome. This was the end of the dream of a 'magna Graecia'. But more important: Marcellus' was now ready to launch an attack on Hannibal.


PART IXL: Hannibals army revisited

The Carthaginian army was no longer what it had been. In 209-208 BC it had been fighting for more than 9 years. Many soldiers now had children old enough to carry a weapon themselves. The number of soldiers had grown, but the quality had diminished.
Marcellus pursued Hannibal, but every time when he tried to attack him Hannibal ran away. Marcellus' impatience was growing, and the senate would like to see some results.


PART XL: Prostration in Rome

Hannibal retreated after a hill. Marcellus gave the order to occupy that hill, so the Carthaginians couldn't fortify it. Marcellus the second consul, 2 squadrons of cavalry and 5 lictores went to the hill. When riding through a forest they were suddenly attacked by the Numidian cavalry. One squadron of Roman cavalry ran away, they were the only survivors; both Marcellus and the other consul were killed. The Roman army quickly retreated.
The Carthaginians buried Marcellus with great honour. They buried him on the hill he tried to occupy.
Consternation in Rome. Two consuls killed. In 9 years every attempt to do something about Hannibal turned out to be a disaster. But just in time the news of the conquest of Nova Carthago came. Scipio sent loads of silver and many precious jewelry.


PART XLI: Tarentum… again

After three years, the citadel of Tarentum was still in Roman hands. Finally a strong Carthaginian navy came to surround the citadel on sea. But when some Roman vessels showed up, Bomilcar and his fleet rushed away as quickly as possible.
Fabius was closing on the city of Tarentum. Treachery helped Fabius, as it helped the Carthaginians some years before. While a Roman squadron launched a fake attack on the other side, a Bruttian officer opened the gate for the Romans.
Carthalo was killed, as well as the most of the Carthaginian and Bruttian soldiers. 30 000 people were captured and sold as slaves, 3080 pounds of gold and loads of silver and precious art were sent to Rome.
Hannibal heard of the conquest of Tarentum when he was more than 250km (150 miles) of the city. There was nothing he could do.


PART XLII: Hannibal keeps trying

Hannibal was furious, he wanted revenge. So he set up a ruse. Fabius was passing the city Metapontum at that time. Hannibal sent a Carthaginian army to that city. Metapontum sent out (fake) legates to Fabius, asking him to conquer the Carthaginian army, that would be small and easy to beat. But Fabius wasn't Marcellus. He saw it was a ruse, and marched on towards Rome.
Hannibal said against his commanders: "We have lost the war in Italy, unless we can gain forces." Why did he say that? The Carthaginian army was more than 9 years invincible. But Hannibal showed he had a forward-looking mind. Hannibal quickly sent messenger to ask Hasdrubal to pass the Alps with his men.


PART XLIII: Scipio, a great leader.

Scipio was still in Spain. He played the role of a chosen leader, not that of an emperor. He released his Spanish prisoners, and gave the Iberians full rights. He gained trust of the Spanish tribes.
Scipio used his time in Spain to train his army and to recruit some of that excellent Spanish cavalry. He also recruited Numidian cavalry, from the other side of the Mediterranean. In the meanwhile the silver mines were working flat out to produce silver for the Romans, silver they surely need.


PART XLIV: Hasdrubal comes back

Hadrubal tried to fulfil the request of his father, Hannibal. Hasdrubal had three armies under his command. He engaged the Romans with one of his armies on the side of the Ebro.
Scipio knew his enemy was a cunning man. The Roman army crossed the Ebro without being seen by the Carthaginians. They managed to surround the Carthaginians. The fight was terrible, but the Romans won. 8000 Carthaginians were killed, and the camp was ransacked by the Romans. But Hasdrubal managed to get away with his strongest soldiers in the direction of the Pyrenees. He was heading to Italy, and Scipio couldn't follow him, because he didn't know where the two other armies were.


PART XLV: Rebellion

Hasdrubal met Mago (another brother of Hannibal) before reaching the Pyrenees. They agreed to go to Italy. Hasdrubal would depart immediately, Mago a bit later, after recruiting new hurlers.
As said, Hasdrubal went for Italy immediately. He crossed the Pyrenees through the pass of "Roncevaux" (famous from 'le chanson de Roland', a middle age story about Charlemagne) and headed for Massilia.
At the same time in Italy Etruria broke the alliance with Roma, and the Gallians in the North started a rebellion. The elections in Roma were held: the new Consules were Claudius Nero; he became head of the Southern army and had to combat Hannibal; and Marcus Livius, who became the commander of the Northern amy. Nobody expected them to be able to stop Hannibal, Hasdrubal and the Gallians.


PART XLVI: Two Barcas in Italy, but not for long

Hasdrubal crossed the Alps at a terrible speed. In the Po plains many Gallians joined his army. Hasdrubal sent his brother, Hannibal, a message with the place of the 'reunion' marked (a river, called Metaurus). His riders went to Southern Italy to meet Hannibal. But Hannibal was just advancing towards the river Aufidus, breaking through the Roman lines. Thus the Romans were able to capture the messagers with valuable news.
Nero immediately warned Livius where the meeting should take place, and then took 7000 of his men and travelled as quick as he could to Metaurus. He left 30 000 men behind to guard Hannibal.
Husdrubal saw there were Romans waiting for them. He stopped his army and tried to find a way out of there. But Nero arrived at night and cut off Hasdrubals' way to the South. Livius attacked, and Nero did the same, but from behind. The battle was going on in all its violence, when Hasdrubal was killed. The Carthaginian army collapsed all of a sudden; the Gallians fled. It was the last time the united people of Italy stood up against Rome. 4 500 captured Romans were freed.


PART XLVII: festival in Rome, Hannibal mourning

Nero forced his army to march back to the Aufidius, bringing his troops, some Carthaginian prisoners and the head of Hasdrubal with him. He ordered to throw the head of Hasdrubal before the feet of the Carthaginian guards and to release the Carthaginian prisoners, so they could tell Hannibal what had happened. Hannibal retreated immediately after hearing the bad news.
The two consules were allowed to enter Rome with a triumphal procession. The Romans started a festival that lasted several months, the senate proclaimed three days of official festivities.
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Postby Gnaeus Dionysius Draco on Sun Feb 23, 2003 11:48 am

Salve Locate,

Umm... where is the rest?

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calm!

Postby Q. C. Locatus Barbatus on Sun Feb 23, 2003 3:01 pm

Salve Draco,


On my way! On my way! I didn't know you were a hasty man...

I: Rome on the better hand


PART XLVIII: Hannibal wants revenge

For the first time since he left nova Carthago 12 years ago Hannibal had lost the initiative. He still owned a large piece of land in the South of Italy with some smaller ports (e.g. Locri and Croton). He had enough silver and food for his men. He was waiting for both consuls to attack him. Then he would revenge the disgraceful throwing with Hasdrubal's head. But the news he got was worse, Rome had ended the famine along its citizens by loads of grain from Sicily, the fields of Latium were cultivated again and Macedonia had made peace with Rome. And Spain was getting in Scipio's hands.


PART IL: Scipio conquering Spain

In Spain Mago had thrown his whole army into battle with Scipio at Ilippa. But Scipio was a smart commander and moved the front continuously during the fight. He defeated the Carthaginian army. The survivors were driven towards the sea. Only Gades was still in Carthaginian hands... but not for long, Scipio conquered the city almost immediately. The Iberian people was too late with its defenses. Indibilis fled, Ilurgi was conquered and Astapa was burnt with its people. Castulo, the city of Hannibal's wife's family, surrendered. Mago and his army (only 2000 soldiers were left) departed for Italy by boat. Spain was in Scipios' hands.


Part L: Syphax

Scipio traveled for the first time to Africa in may 206 BC. He wanted to meet Syphax, chief of the Numidians (a man who was known for his talents in negotiating). The journey was dangerous and Scipio's ship was only guarded by one other galley. When he entered the port of Siga he saw 7 Carthaginian ships waiting for him. But he kept on sailing and walked fearless of the ship onto quay. In the palace he was introduced to a Carthaginian aristocrat called Hasdrubal (they must have been short on names in Carthago...), who had been an opponent of Scipio at Ilippa, together with Mago. Syphax organized a huge feast because of this meeting. Syphax didn't want to take part in the ongoing war and tried to create friendship between both men and proposed a treaty. Scipio saw what Syphax was trying and replied: "I want to be a friend of this Carthaginian prince, but I'm only doing what the senate is telling me." Hasdrubal later told Syphax: "this man is even more dangerous with its tongue than he is in battle."
Scipio departed for Rome with the promise that Syphax would be an ally.
Hasdrubal departed for Carthago with the same promise...


PART LI: Masinissa

Scipio knew he needed excellent cavalry when fighting in Africa. To get this support he succeeded to enlist Masinissa, an excellent commander, with his men. Masinissa (king of the Massylians) had been ally of Carthago until the Carthaginians fled after the battle of Ilippa. They refused to house his cavalry ion Gades. Also Scipio released a nephew of Masinissa, who was captured. Masinissa was also fascinated by Scipio's charms. But there was more, The Carthaginians had just disinherited Masinissa. He promised to help Scipio on the African shores with loads of Numidian cavalry. But Scipio didn't invade Africa yet. Hannibal's power was still present there and the people of Astapa rather killed themselves than surrendering to the Romans. So Scipio founded a colony in the valley of Betis, for Romanisation of the country. He went back to Italy together with Laelius, leaving his army, because of forthcoming elections


PART LII: Scipio for consul!

Some old law prevented Scipio from entering Rome because he had left his position without having had the order to do so. Finally the entire senate came outside the city walls (to the temple of Bellona) to hear what Scipio had to stay, thus bypassing the law. The Senate decided to allow Scipio to enter the city, what he did with great honor. The people loved him. Scipio was elected consul, Licinius Crassus (the Pontifex Maximus) became second consul. The tradition forebode the Pontifex to leave Italy, thus Scipio was sent to Sicily. But Scipio encountered a lot of opposition against an invasion of Africa. The land-owners accepted the presence of Hannibal in Italy and thought they would be able to have a peace treaty with him within a few years. Scipio tried to force the senate to allow an invasion of Africa by the threat to put the proposal before the peoples council. This was the same as rebelling against the senate.


PART LIII: Fabius against Scipio

Fabius Maximus stood up to reprimand Scipio. "Why should we try to invade Africa, when Hannibal is still on our doorstep?" He also spoke condescending about Scipio's triumphs in Spain. "Scipio tries to establish his power, not the power of Rome". Scipio replied: "Is there a better example than Hannibal himself? He invaded Italy, knowing that the Roman army here would be waiting for him. There is no such army in Africa." Scipio got what he wanted: the authorization to act as he wanted, except he couldn't take legions from within Italy. or more than 30 ships with him to Africa. Scipio went back to Sicily.


PART LIV: Scipio's men

In Sicily were still some legions left. The veterans from the battle of Cannae were banned to this isle. These men were waiting for revenge. Scipio also took 7000 volunteers with him to Sicily. There he became a favorite of Syracuse by paying compensation for the grief done by Marcellus. The Quaestor of Sicily enraged himself about the expenses, and his name was Marcus Porcius Cato. The feud between him and Scipio lasted for a long time. Scipio took great care of his army, counting 12000 - 20 000 soldiers at that time. Scipio sent Laelius to Africa with a part of his troops to encounter Masinissa. The Romans ransacked Hippo Regius (Bône) in Africa and met Masinissa. Masinissa told the Romans to hurry; Syphax already had chosen the side of Carthago. Laelius immediately sailed back to Sicily.
When Carthago heard of this invasion they sent reinforcements to Hannibal (6000 Soldiers, 800 Numidians and 8 elephants and a convoy of ships with food and silver) and manned the city walls.
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Postby Gnaeus Dionysius Draco on Sun Feb 23, 2003 6:58 pm

Salve mi amice,

Thank you very much. Today the timeframe's a bit too short to upload new material to the site, but I'll do it next week ;).

Vale bene!
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J: Africa

Postby Q. C. Locatus Barbatus on Wed Feb 26, 2003 12:43 pm

J: Africa

PART LV: The Invasion

Scipio finally sailed to Africa with 30 000 men and 400 ships. He landed near Utica (about 20 miles from Carthago), an old Greek-Phoenician city. But Utica had a strong defence and Scipio had to besiege an enemy city in enemy lands. Soon Masinissa showed up, but only with 200 Numidian Cavalry. He accompanied the message that a Carthaginian army was heading towards Utica, under the rule of Hasdrubal (yes, another Hasdrubal) and Syphax. Scipio built a camp called Castra Cornelia. The coming winter brought with him bad weather and thus protected Scipio from attacks from the Carthaginian fleet.
In Italy, Hannibal went to Croton, a port, and started worrying about the Roman invasion in Spain.


PART LVI: Scipio beats the Carthaginian forces

When spring came Scipio sent out his spies.
Suddenly at night fire broke out in the Carthaginian camps. When the soldiers tried to flee they ran into the swords of the Romans. Hasdrubal and Syphax only just managed to flee to their homelands. Scipio didn't waste time and pursued them.
Syphax and Hasdrubal quickly raised an army and even got help from Spain, 4 000 Celtic Iberians came to support the Carthaginian army (how and why is not known).
This army was fatally beaten by the Romans, but they needed all their force to kill the Iberians, who rather wanted to die than to surrender. Scipio marched on towards Tunis. But his spies brought him the news that Scipio was afraid of; that the Carthaginian navy was leaving the ports.


PART LVII: Victory on both sides

Scipio quickly returned to Castra Cornelia. The Roman fleet was not ready for fight. The Carthaginians stayed outside the port. When they entered the next day, they were countered by a wall of ships manned with soldiers and siege equipment. Nevertheless the battle at Utica ended in a Roman defeat, the Carthaginians took with them home 60 Roman ships. Scipio became more prudent.
The war in the South was more successful, Laelius and Masinissa conquered Cirta, the capital of Syphax his country. Syphax was captured and his wife Sophonisbe died in suspicious circumstances. Masinissa was granted this kingdom by Scipio as reward for his courageous behaviour during the war. Thus became Masinissa the first Roman vassal in the South. Hadrubal had committed suicide.


PART LVIII: Rome is taking control

The Carthaginian army was almost completely wiped out. Roman armies were taking control of all roads. No more food came into the city of Carthago. The (triple) walls were loaded with defenders and the Carthaginian navy protected the port. The council of Carthago didn't know what to do; some wanted a treaty, others wanted to attack the Romans with a new army (although it was almost impossible to quickly raise a new army) but the most were thinking of calling Hannibal back to his city. The people in the streets were supporting this and spoke loud about Hannibal's return. The council finally gave the supreme command to Hanno (who led the cavalry at the battle of Cannae), replaced the (too prudent) admiral Bomilcar by another admiral called… yes!!... Hasdrubal; but most important, they called for Mago and Hannibal, and asked them to return to their homelands with most possible speed. Mago sailed to Croton to get Hannibal and the 60 Roman ships were a welcome help.


PART LIX: The sudden disappearance of Hannibal

In July 203BC Mago sailed to Italy. In October he's on the shores of Africa. The Roman legions surrounding Hannibal in Italy suddenly notice that he isn't there anymore. What happened? All Roman sources are silent about this topic, but modern historians suspect the following happened: Hannibal's army wasn't that big anymore (12 000 -15 000 men). He took his strongest men with him, and left (the in the meanwhile necessary part of the army) women and children behind. Small companies were still defending Croton where Hannibal was suspected to be. All horses were killed (there was no place on the ships for them) and the elephants were left behind. The Roman Navy was patrolling between Croton and Carthago, but Hannibal didn't go to Carthago, he went to 90 miles more South, on the eastern shores of nowadays Tunisia, close to the city of Hadrumetum (Sousse). The Romans did intercept some ships and Mago was killed, but they didn't suspect it was Hannibal and his army sailing to Africa. After 34 years, from which 17 in Italy, Hannibal was back in Africa.
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K: Back in Carthago

Postby Q. C. Locatus Barbatus on Thu Mar 06, 2003 1:14 pm

K: Back in Carthago


PART LX: A treaty?

In the meanwhile Scipio had concluded a provisional treaty with the Carthaginians (come back of all prisoners to Rome, the withdrawal of all Carthaginian forces out of Italy and Spain, Sardinia and Corsica went to Rome, all galleys except 20 went to Rome and a compensation of 5000 silver talents; about 8 000 000 Euro). Both parties used this treaty only to gain more time to build up there strength. Hannibal was marching towards Carthago and mustering new forces; Scipio was receiving reinforcements from Italy. Scipio had expected Hannibal to return, but not this quick and with an unharmed army. Laelius went to Rome to ask for more troops and more supplies. 120 supply ships and 20 galleys reached Castra Cornelia, under rule of praetor Lentulus. Another fleet didn't completely reach Castra Cornelia because of the bad weather. The galleys and the troops were saved, but 200 supply ships were lying a distance offshore. In the night the fleet of the starved Carthaginians stole the ships. Roman Legates went protesting in Carthago, but the citizens of Carthago were enraged and the Romans merely were able to escape alive. On the way back their ship was attacked by three galleys of Hannibal, who didn't care about the treaty. The Roman legates saved themselves by stranding their galley on the beach not very far away of Castra Cornelia.


PART LXI: Two armies marching to meet each other

Scipio was still waiting for reinforcements from Rome and Masinissa, who was gathering Numidian Cavalry in the West. He got a message from his spies that some of Syphaxes old allies were gathering with Hannibal. Scipio decided not to wait any longer and marched towards Carthago. He ransacked and burnt all villages on his way and let the people march behind his army, tied as slaves.
The council of Carthago quickly sent a message to Hannibal. His army (about 37 000 men and 80 elephants) came to Carthago to defend it from its Roman offenders. He knew the Romans didn't have any Numidian cavalry.
The irony was that Hannibal was marching in areas which he didn't know, he only had been there as a 9 year old, and the Romans knew the terrain.


PART LXII: Two armies, two commanders meeting each other

Scipio marched on up to a place called Zama. There he met a Carthaginian envoy. He did a stunning proposition: Hannibal wanted to meet Scipio between the enemy lines. While thinking about the proposal Scipio saw dust coming from the west. It was Masinissa, with 6000 cavalry and 4000 infantry. Now Scipio had a bigger cavalry than his enemy. Scipio decide to meet Hannibal. The both of them only took only an interpreter with them (for winning time, both of them spoke fluently Greek and Latin). Polybius tells about this extraordinary meeting:
"You have had success, Roman Consul. You also had luck."
Scipio waited.
"Did you ever think about the fact if there is still something to win for Rome if you continue battle? Do you know that if you are defeated here, you will lose your whole army? I wouldn't propose a treaty if it wouldn't give advantage to the both of us."
Scipio still waited. There was no doubt that Hannibal knew of the conditions of the provisional treaty. He asked the conditions Hannibal would offer him.
Hannibal answered that Carthago would cede all Isles and Spain would be abandoned by Carthago. He didn't say anything about compensation, returning prisoners or galleys.
Scipio replied that he couldn't accept less than what was foreseen in the provisional treaty.
The two men saluted and departed for their own army.


PART LXIII: The battle

That night Hannibal's forces marched towards the Romans. In front were the elephants. But Scipio countered him. There were unusual "gaps" in his order of battle. When the elephants came into sight, the Romans blew on all their horns and trumpets. The elephants went wild, running into these "gaps". There they were taken care of by javelins; the elephants turned around and ran into their own army. The Roman cavalry, under the rule of Masinissa and Laelius, attacked the Carthaginian cavalry, which fled across the plains; the Romans pursued them.
In the meanwhile the Roman legions attacked the Carthaginian infantry. After heavy and long fights the Roman Legions destroyed the first and second line of Carthaginian soldiers. But now they were in front of Hannibal's veterans of the Italian front.
Scipio made his lines longer than the Carthaginians, thus trying to defeat the weaker Carthaginian flanks. But at that very moment the Roman cavalry returned and attacked the Carthaginians in the back. They were completely destroyed. In the same way the Romans were at Cannae. Hannibal managed to flee. Scipio said later that Hannibal had done anything a man could do in his situation.


PART LXIV: Peace?

Suddenly the Sons of Syphax appeared with Numidian cavalry. Too late, and they were quickly defeated by the Romans. With this cavalry Hannibal might have won the battle. But Scipio had token the good chance by attacking the Carthaginians immediately after Masinissa showed up. Also the new consules of Rome arrived with reinforcements. But Scipio remained the uncontested commander. Rome expected him to destroy Carthago, but Scipio observed the defences and didn't want to besiege the city. He proposed a treaty (surrender of all ships except ten and all elephants, no wars without the authorisation of Rome, a compensation of 10000 silver talents over 50 years and Carthago became 'the friend of Rome', something the Barcas never have wanted, and which they started the war for). Masinissa became king of all of Numidia. The Roman deserters were crucified, other Italian deserters were killed.


PART LXV: Home sweet home, in Rome.

Publius Cornelius Scipio returned to Rome in 210BC. He had with him 123000 pounds of silver. The people were euphoric. The senate was less euphoric. They were afraid that the citizens of Rome would try to make him king and Carthago still existed. The Claudii were jealous. The senate limited the honour by granting him the titles of 'princeps senatus' and 'Africanus'.
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