Roman Calendar
by: M. Moravius Horatius Piscinus


Be present O Queen of the Heavenly Gods, we Your chaste daughters pray and bring forth this venerable gift, we, all the Roman women of noble name, have woven this mantle with our own hands, embroidered it for You with threads of gold. This veil You shall wear for now, O Juno, until we mothers grow less fearful for our sons. But if You will grant that we may repel these African storm clouds from our land, we shall set upon You a flashing crown of diverse gems set in gold. (Silius Italicus Punica 7.78-85)

1 KALENDIS N: Thunderous Jupiter Tonans, I pray that finally You may spare me. (Valerius Flaccus Argonautica 4.474-5) Juno Sospita of Lavinium (197 BCE), Queen of Heaven and Savior Mother. Temple of Vesta in Forum (713 BCE).

2 IV Non Feb N: Dies Ater Juno Februata Place roasted spelt and salt on doorsill. These are the Principles of Law: to live honestly, to harm no one, and to give each his due. (Gaius, De Institutiones Justiniani 1.2) Edictum consularis De Institutionibus reaffirms SVRís commitment to promote Roman Law, 2003

3 III Non Feb N: May the Gods Immortal make happy results come from pious acts. (Livy 6.26.6-7)

4 Pridie Nonas N: Death of Septimus Severus, ascension of Caracalla and Geta, 211 CE. As bread feeds the stomach, so reading feeds the mind. (Anonymous) SVR founds Collegium Militarium, 2002 CE.

5 Nones Feb N: NONAE Faunus; Concordia, goddess of harmonious relations in marriage.

6 VIII Idus Feb N: Dies Ater Radiant Concordia, ever reside in this marriage, and so, fitly joined in matrimony, may Venus always bless with children this couple. (Martial IV.13.7-8)

7 VII Idus Feb N: Arrival of Favonius, the westerly wind,that begins the spring and opens the earth; it is moderately cool, but healthy. (Pliny, Nat. Hist. 18.77)

8 VI Idus Feb N: Invincible Holiness, with venerating prayers I ask that You send good portents to signify a change for the better for the people of our nation. (Accius, Aenead sive Decius fr. 4)

9 V Idus Feb N: As soon as (Favonius) begins to prevail, it indicates that the time has arrived for pruning the vine, weeding the corn, planting trees, grafting fruit-trees, and trimming the olive, for its breezes are productive of the most nutritious effects. (Pliny, Nat. Hist. 18.77)

10 IV Idus Feb N: I pray by the Gods that everything will be made fortunate. (Afranius, Fabula Togata fr. 11)

11 III Idus Feb N: FORNICALIA Festival held by the Curiae, on an unfixed date, roasting grain in the Forum by ancient fashion to honor Fornax, goddess of ovens and bakers.

12 Pridie Idus N: The diligent farmer plants trees he will never see (Cicero, Disputationes Tusculanae 1.14.31).

13 IDIBUS NP: FAUNALIA Dedication of the temple of Faunus on Insula Tiberis, 193 BCE. Parentalia performed by the Vestal Virgins at the tomb of the first Vestal Virgin, Tarpeia. Feralia begins at the sixth hour of daylight and continues until 21 Feb, honoring the Manes.

14 XVI Kal Mart N: Dies Ater Amorous Faunus, from whom the Nymphs flee, step lightly across my boundaries and sunny fields, and soon depart, leaving your blessing on my young lambs and kids, and leveled tender shoots. (Horace, Carmina Liber III.xviii.1-8)

15 XV Kal Mart NP: LUPERCALIA Purification rite of the februatio, beginning with the sacrifice of a buck in the Lupercal cave on the Palatine, followed by the running of the Luperci.

16 XIV Kal Mart N: Romulus, O Romulus, may You eternally live in Heaven among the children of the Gods. (Ennius, Annales I.121)

17 XIII Kal Mart NP: QUIRINALIA Sacrifices to Quirinus and Hora on the Quirinal. Temple of Quirinus rebuilt by Augustus, 16 BCE. Feriae Stultorum: Those who did not make sacrifice at the Fornicalia now make their offerings in the Curiae.

18 XII Kal Mart C: Parentalia Family procession to the tombs of relatives, bringing gifts of wine, water, milk, honey, oil, salt and black sacrificial victims, and decorating tombs with flowers.

19 XI Kal Mart C: Septimus Severus defeats Clodius Albinus at Lugdunum, 197 CE. Constantius orders removal of statues and closing of the temples, 356 CE.

20 X Kal Mart C: Divine Penates of our ancestors, to you I commend the good fortune of my parents, and to you, Spiritual Father of our family, that you safeguard them well. (Plautus, Mercator 834-5)

21 IX Kal Mart F: FERALIA Offering to the Manes of gifts of wine, water, milk, honey, oil, and salt on pottery shards at crossroad shrines, decorated with flowers. Death of Germanicus, 4 CE.

22 VIII Kal Mart N: Caristia or Cara Cognatio ("Dear Relation"), a day to celebrate our best-loved ones, living or dead; to patch up quarrels; and to renew family ties. Lares, care for our house that you established. (Ennius, Annales I.141)

23 VII Kal Mart NP: TERMINALIA Holy Terminus, You define people and cities and nations within their boundaries. All land would be in dispute if without You. You seek no offices or anyoneís favour; no amount of gold can corrupt Your judgement. In good faith You preserve the legitimate claims to rural lands. (Ovid, Fasti II.658-62)

24 VI Kal Mart N: Regifugium : The Rex Sacrorum, attended by the Salii, made a sacrifice in the Comitia, from which he then would flee as an act of purification to renew the City. By the Late Republic it was believed to represent the flight of Tarquinius Superbus from Rome. Theodosius bans all blood sacrifices, 391 CE.

25 V Kal Mart C: Has Procne, springís herald, come unafraid of winterís return? (Ovid, Fasti 2.853-54)

26 IV Kal Mart EN: Io! Lares, give us fine harvests and fruitful vines. (Tibullus 1.1.24)

27 III Kal Mart NP: Equirria : Horse races held in the Campus Martius to honor Mars. Birth of Constantine, 272/273 CE. Martyrdom of priests Nestorius and Priscus ends the Eleusinian Mysteries, 380 CE.

28 Prid Kal Mart C: Neria, wife of Mars, I appeal to you, give peace. May you use your own favored position with your husband; counsel Him to partake in this plan. (Gellius Noctes Atticae XIII.23.13)

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